T O P

[资源分享]     Linux命令入门篇(一)

  • By - 楼主

  • 2020-12-02 00:00:19
  • 最近都在学习Linux命令,渐渐觉得命令行模式是那么的简洁明了,短小精悍,并且功能强大。本文用来记录学习的过程,仅供学习分享使用,如有不足之处,还请指正。

    Linux的目录结构

    在Linux命令模式下,输入ls / 或者 先切换到根目录下,在使用ls命令。 即可查询Linux操作系统的目录结构,如下所示:

    1 [root@bogon ~]# ls /
    2 bin   dev  home  lib64  mnt  proc  run   srv  tmp  var
    3 boot  etc  lib   media  opt  root  sbin  sys  usr
    4 [root@bogon ~]# cd /
    5 [root@bogon /]# ls
    6 bin   dev  home  lib64  mnt  proc  run   srv  tmp  var
    7 boot  etc  lib   media  opt  root  sbin  sys  usr

    树状目录结构如下所示:

    关于各个目录的说明,可参考菜鸟笔记

    Linux账号相关命令

    通过useradd新增账号 和通过passwd设置密码,如下所示:

    1 [root@bogon ~]# useradd heabc
    2 [root@bogon ~]# passwd heabc
    3 Changing password for user heabc.
    4 New password:
    5 BAD PASSWORD: The password is shorter than 7 characters
    6 Retype new password:
    7 passwd: all authentication tokens updated successfully.

    通过userdel删除密码,如下所示:

    1 [root@bogon ~]# userdel heabc
    2 userdel: user heabc is currently used by process 2477

    以上提示表示用户被进程占用,不可以删除,需要关闭进程,才可以删除成功。

    通过su命令切换账号,切换账号时,如果不加短横线,表示不切换环境变量;加短横线,则切换变量。如下所示:

    1 [root@bogon ~]# su - heabc
    2 [heabc@bogon ~]$ ls
    3 [heabc@bogon ~]$ who
    4 root     pts/0        2020-11-29 22:17 (192.168.127.1)
    5 [heabc@bogon ~]$ su - root
    6 Password:
    7 Last login: Sun Nov 29 22:54:26 CST 2020 on pts/0

    通过who命令,查询当前登录的账号,如下所示:

    1 [root@bogon /]# who
    2 root     pts/0        2020-11-30 22:42 (192.168.127.1)
    3 admin    :0           2020-11-30 22:58 (:0)

    通过uptime查询系统运行的时间,如下所示:

    1 [root@bogon /]# uptime
    2  23:01:02 up 19 min,  2 users,  load average: 0.14, 0.24, 0.13

    同过shutdown -h now 进行关机命令,通过shutdown -r now进行重启命令操作,如下所示:

     

     

     Linux进程查询命令

    通过ps命令查询系统后台运行的进程。如下所示:

    1 [root@bogon ~]# ps -aux
    2 USER        PID %CPU %MEM    VSZ   RSS TTY      STAT START   TIME COMMAND
    3 root          1  0.0  0.7 128268  6972 ?        Ss   22:15   0:01 /usr/lib/syste
    4 root          2  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    22:15   0:00 [kthreadd]
    5 root          4  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S<   22:15   0:00 [kworker/0:0H]
    6 root          5  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    22:15   0:00 [kworker/u256:
    7 root          6  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    22:15   0:00 [ksoftirqd/0]

    Linux目录相关命令

    通过cd命令,切换目录,可以就相对路径,也可以就绝对路径,如下所示:

    1 [root@bogon admin]# cd ../hexx
    2 [root@bogon hexx]# ls
    3 dir1  dir2  dir2_2  dir3  file2.txt  file4  file5.txt  file6.txt

    通过pwd命令,显示当前所在的目录,如下所示:

    1 [root@bogon ~]# pwd
    2 /root

    通过ls命令显示当前目录的内容,如下所示:

    1 [root@bogon ~]# cd /home
    2 [root@bogon home]# ls
    3 admin  hexx
    4 [root@bogon home]# cd /root
    5 [root@bogon ~]# ls
    6 anaconda-ks.cfg  initial-setup-ks.cfg

    通过ls -a 显示目录下所有的内容,包括隐藏内容,如下所示:

    1 [root@bogon ~]# ls -a
    2 .                .bash_history  .bashrc  .cshrc                .local
    3 ..               .bash_logout   .cache   .dbus                 .tcshrc
    4 anaconda-ks.cfg  .bash_profile  .config  initial-setup-ks.cfg

    通过touch命令创建文件,默认在当前目录下创建,如下所示:

    1 [root@bogon hexx]# touch file1 file2 file3
    2 [root@bogon hexx]# ls
    3 file1  file2  file3

    也可以指定路径下创建文件,如下所示:

    1 [root@bogon home]# touch  hexx/file4
    2 [root@bogon home]# cd hexx
    3 [root@bogon hexx]# ls
    4 file1  file2  file3  file4

    通过cat命令,查看文件内容,如下所示:

    1 [root@bogon etc]# cat host.conf
    2 multi on
    3 [root@bogon etc]# cat passwd
    4 root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash
    5 bin:x:1:1:bin:/bin:/sbin/nologin
    6 daemon:x:2:2:daemon:/sbin:/sbin/nologin
    7 adm:x:3:4:adm:/var/adm:/sbin/nologin
    8 lp:x:4:7:lp:/var/spool/lpd:/sbin/nologin
    9 ......

     通过head命令,查看文件内容前几行,如下所示:

     1 [root@bogon etc]# head passwd
     2 root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash
     3 bin:x:1:1:bin:/bin:/sbin/nologin
     4 daemon:x:2:2:daemon:/sbin:/sbin/nologin
     5 adm:x:3:4:adm:/var/adm:/sbin/nologin
     6 lp:x:4:7:lp:/var/spool/lpd:/sbin/nologin
     7 sync:x:5:0:sync:/sbin:/bin/sync
     8 shutdown:x:6:0:shutdown:/sbin:/sbin/shutdown
     9 halt:x:7:0:halt:/sbin:/sbin/halt
    10 mail:x:8:12:mail:/var/spool/mail:/sbin/nologin
    11 operator:x:11:0:operator:/root:/sbin/nologin

    通过cp命令复制文件

    复制文件,既可以采用源文件名,也可以重新命名,如下所示:

    1 [root@bogon hexx]# cp file1 file6.txt
    2 [root@bogon hexx]# ls
    3 file1  file2  file3  file4  file5.txt  file6.txt

    cp命令既可以相同目录内容复制,也可以跨目录复制,如下所示:

    1 [root@bogon hexx]# cp file2 ../admin/file2.txt
    2 [root@bogon hexx]# ls
    3 file1  file2  file3  file4  file5.txt  file6.txt
    4 [root@bogon hexx]# cd ../admin
    5 [root@bogon admin]# ls
    6 Desktop    Downloads  Music     Public     Videos
    7 Documents  file2.txt  Pictures  Templates

     

    通过cp -r 命令复制文件夹及其内容,如下所示:

     1 [root@bogon hexx]# cp -r  dir2 dir2_2
     2 [root@bogon hexx]# ls
     3 dir1  dir2  dir2_2  dir3  file2.txt  file4  file5.txt  file6.txt
     4 [root@bogon hexx]# cd dir2_2
     5 [root@bogon dir2_2]# ls
     6 [root@bogon dir2_2]# cd ../
     7 [root@bogon hexx]# ls
     8 dir1  dir2  dir2_2  dir3  file2.txt  file4  file5.txt  file6.txt
     9 [root@bogon hexx]# cp -r dir2 ../admin/dir2_3
    10 [root@bogon hexx]# cd ../admin
    11 [root@bogon admin]# ls
    12 Desktop  dir3       Downloads  file2.txt  Pictures  Templates
    13 dir2_3   Documents  file1      Music      Public    Videos

    通过mv命令移动文件,如下所示:

    1 [root@bogon hexx]# mv file1 ../admin/file1
    2 [root@bogon hexx]# ls
    3 file2  file3  file4  file5.txt  file6.txt
    4 [root@bogon hexx]# cd ../admin
    5 [root@bogon admin]# ls
    6 Desktop    Downloads  file2.txt  Pictures  Templates
    7 Documents  file1      Music      Public    Videos

    如果mv移动的文件在同一目录内容,则是重命名,如下所示:

    1 [root@bogon hexx]# mv file2 file2.txt
    2 [root@bogon hexx]# ls
    3 file2.txt  file3  file4  file5.txt  file6.txt

     

    如果mv在同一目录操作,在当前文件目录中已存在,则移动到目标目录内;如不存在,则是重命名。如下所示:

     1 [root@bogon hexx]# ls
     2 dir1  dir2  dir2_2  dir3  file2.txt  file4  file5.txt  file6.txt
     3 [root@bogon hexx]# mv dir3 dir3_3
     4 [root@bogon hexx]# ls
     5 dir1  dir2  dir2_2  dir3_3  file2.txt  file4  file5.txt  file6.txt
     6 [root@bogon hexx]# mv dir2 dir2_2
     7 [root@bogon hexx]# ls
     8 dir1  dir2_2  dir3_3  file2.txt  file4  file5.txt  file6.txt
     9 [root@bogon hexx]# cd dir2_2
    10 [root@bogon dir2_2]# ls
    11 dir2

    如果mv在不同目录内操作,则相当于剪切功能,如下所示:

    1 [root@bogon hexx]# ls
    2 dir1  dir2_2  dir3_3  file2.txt  file4  file5.txt  file6.txt
    3 [root@bogon hexx]# mv dir1 ../admin/dir1_1
    4 [root@bogon hexx]# ls
    5 dir2_2  dir3_3  file2.txt  file4  file5.txt  file6.txt
    6 [root@bogon hexx]# cd ../admin
    7 [root@bogon admin]# ls
    8 Desktop  dir2_3  Documents  file1      Music     Public     Videos
    9 dir1_1   dir3    Downloads  file2.txt  Pictures  Templates

    从别的目录移动到当前目录,如下所示:

    1 [root@bogon hexx]# mv ../admin/dir1_1 dir5
    2 [root@bogon hexx]# ls
    3 dir2_2  dir3_3  dir5  file2.txt  file4  file5.txt  file6.txt

    通过rm命令删除文件,如下所示:

    1 [root@bogon hexx]# rm file3
    2 rm: remove regular empty file ‘file3’? Y
    3 [root@bogon hexx]# ls
    4 file2.txt  file4  file5.txt  file6.txt

    通过占位符?删除文件,如下所示:

    1 [root@bogon hexx]# ls
    2 dir  dir2_2  dir5  file2.txt  file4  file5.txt  file6.txt
    3 [root@bogon hexx]# rm file?
    4 rm: remove regular empty file ‘file4’? Y
    5 [root@bogon hexx]# ls
    6 dir  dir2_2  dir5  file2.txt  file5.txt  file6.txt

     

    通过通配符*删除文件及目录,如下所示:

    1 [root@bogon hexx]# rm -r dir*
    2 rm: remove directory ‘dir’? Y
    3 rm: descend into directory ‘dir2_2’? Y
    4 rm: remove directory ‘dir2_2/dir2’? Y
    5 rm: remove directory ‘dir2_2’? Y
    6 rm: remove directory ‘dir5’? Y
    7 rm: remove regular empty file ‘dir_file1’? Y
    8 [root@bogon hexx]# ls
    9 file2.txt  file5.txt  file6.txt

    通过find命令查询文件,

    查询指定文件名的文件,如下所示:

    1 [root@bogon hexx]# find ./ -name file4
    2 ./file4

    通过?占位符查询,如下所示:

    1 [root@bogon hexx]# find ./ -name file?
    2 ./file4
    3 [root@bogon hexx]# find ./ -name file\?
    4 ./file4

    通过*号模糊查询,如下所示:

     1 [root@bogon hexx]# find ./ -name file\*
     2 ./file4
     3 ./file5.txt
     4 ./file6.txt
     5 ./file2.txt
     6 [root@bogon hexx]# find ./ -name \*le\*
     7 ./.bash_profile
     8 ./file4
     9 ./file5.txt
    10 ./file6.txt
    11 ./file2.txt

    同file命令,查询文件类型,如下所示:

    1 [root@bogon admin]# file file2.txt
    2 file2.txt: empty
    3 [root@bogon admin]# file Music
    4 Music: directory

    通过ll命令,查询文件的详细内容,如下所示:

    1 [root@bogon ~]# ll
    2 total 8
    3 -rw-------. 1 root root 1987 May 26  2020 anaconda-ks.cfg
    4 -rw-r--r--. 1 root root 2018 May 26  2020 initial-setup-ks.cfg

    其中,第一个,短横线表示普通文件,D表示文件目录。

     通过ls - l查询当前目录所有文件的详细信息,如下所示:

    1 [root@bogon hexx]# ls -l
    2 total 0
    3 drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root  6 Nov 26 22:47 dir1
    4 drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root  6 Nov 26 22:47 dir2
    5 drwxr-xr-x. 3 root root 19 Nov 26 22:51 dir3
    6 -rw-r--r--. 1 root root  0 Nov 25 22:07 file2.txt
    7 -rw-r--r--. 1 root root  0 Nov 25 22:09 file4
    8 -rw-r--r--. 1 root root  0 Nov 25 22:13 file5.txt
    9 -rw-r--r--. 1 root root  0 Nov 25 22:17 file6.txt

     

    也可以查询,其他目录的文件信息,如下所示:

    1 [root@bogon hexx]# ls -l ../admin
    2 total 0
    3 drwxr-xr-x. 2 admin admin 6 May 26  2020 Desktop
    4 drwxr-xr-x. 2 root  root  6 Nov 26 22:48 dir3
    5 drwxr-xr-x. 2 admin admin 6 May 26  2020 Documents
    6 drwxr-xr-x. 2 admin admin 6 May 26  2020 Downloads
    7 -rw-r--r--. 1 root  root  0 Nov 25 22:07 file1
    8 -rw-r--r--. 1 root  root  0 Nov 25 22:36 file2.txt
    9 ......

    通过ls -al查询当前目录和其他目录下的全部文件的详细信息,如下所示:

     1 [root@bogon hexx]# ls -al
     2 total 16
     3 drwx------. 8 1001 1001 228 Nov 26 22:51 .
     4 drwxr-xr-x. 4 root root  31 Nov 24 22:53 ..
     5 -rw-------. 1 1001 1001  23 Nov 24 22:59 .bash_history
     6 -rw-r--r--. 1 1001 1001  18 Apr  1  2020 .bash_logout
     7 ........
     8 [root@bogon hexx]# ls -al ../admin
     9 total 32
    10 drwx------. 16 admin admin 4096 Nov 26 22:48 .
    11 drwxr-xr-x.  4 root  root    31 Nov 24 22:53 ..
    12 -rw-------.  1 admin admin  279 Nov 25 23:06 .bash_history
    13 -rw-r--r--.  1 admin admin   18 Apr  1  2020 .bash_logout
    14 -rw-r--r--.  1 admin admin  193 Apr  1  2020 .bash_profile
    15 -rw-r--r--.  1 admin admin  231 Apr  1  2020 .bashrc
    16 drwx------. 14 admin admin 4096 May 26  2020 .cache
    17 drwxr-xr-x. 14 admin admin  261 May 26  2020 .config
    18 ......

    通过mkdir命令,创建文件目录,如下所示:

    1 [root@bogon hexx]# mkdir dir dir1
    2 [root@bogon hexx]# ls
    3 dir  dir1  dir2_2  dir3_3  dir5  file2.txt  file4  file5.txt  file6.txt

    通过rmdir命令删除目录,如下所示:

    1 [root@bogon hexx]# rmdir dir1
    2 [root@bogon hexx]# ls
    3 dir  dir2_2  dir3_3  dir5  file2.txt  file4  file5.txt  file6.txt

    通过rmdir -r命令删除目录及子目录,如下所示:

    1 [root@bogon hexx]# rm -r  dir3_3
    2 rm: descend into directory ‘dir3_3’? Y
    3 rm: descend into directory ‘dir3_3/dir33’? Y
    4 rm: remove directory ‘dir3_3/dir33/dir333’? Y
    5 rm: remove directory ‘dir3_3/dir33’? Y
    6 rm: remove directory ‘dir3_3’? Y
    7 [root@bogon hexx]# ls
    8 dir  dir2_2  dir5  file2.txt  file4  file5.txt  file6.txt

     

    网络相关命令

    ifconfig命令,查看网络配置,如下所示:

     1 [root@bogon ~]# ifconfig
     2 ens33: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
     3         inet 192.168.127.129  netmask 255.255.255.0  broadcast 192.168.127.255
     4         inet6 fe80::24e8:9baf:7982:428b  prefixlen 64  scopeid 0x20<link>
     5         ether 00:0c:29:6d:3e:16  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
     6         RX packets 2976  bytes 214136 (209.1 KiB)
     7         RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
     8         TX packets 283  bytes 41368 (40.3 KiB)
     9         TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0
    10 
    11 lo: flags=73<UP,LOOPBACK,RUNNING>  mtu 65536
    12         inet 127.0.0.1  netmask 255.0.0.0
    13         inet6 ::1  prefixlen 128  scopeid 0x10<host>
    14         loop  txqueuelen 1000  (Local Loopback)
    15         RX packets 48  bytes 4080 (3.9 KiB)
    16         RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
    17         TX packets 48  bytes 4080 (3.9 KiB)
    18         TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0
    19 
    20 virbr0: flags=4099<UP,BROADCAST,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
    21         inet 192.168.122.1  netmask 255.255.255.0  broadcast 192.168.122.255
    22         ether 52:54:00:56:b3:7f  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
    23         RX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
    24         RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
    25         TX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
    26         TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

    ping命令,测试网络连通,通过Ctrl+C停止命令,如下所示:

     1 [root@bogon ~]# ping 192.168.1.102
     2 PING 192.168.1.102 (192.168.1.102) 56(84) bytes of data.
     3 64 bytes from 192.168.1.102: icmp_seq=1 ttl=128 time=48.6 ms
     4 64 bytes from 192.168.1.102: icmp_seq=2 ttl=128 time=60.9 ms
     5 64 bytes from 192.168.1.102: icmp_seq=3 ttl=128 time=83.2 ms
     6 64 bytes from 192.168.1.102: icmp_seq=4 ttl=128 time=105 ms
     7 64 bytes from 192.168.1.102: icmp_seq=5 ttl=128 time=35.8 ms
     8 64 bytes from 192.168.1.102: icmp_seq=6 ttl=128 time=46.6 ms
     9 64 bytes from 192.168.1.102: icmp_seq=7 ttl=128 time=67.5 ms
    10 64 bytes from 192.168.1.102: icmp_seq=8 ttl=128 time=14.0 ms
    11 64 bytes from 192.168.1.102: icmp_seq=9 ttl=128 time=110 ms
    12 64 bytes from 192.168.1.102: icmp_seq=10 ttl=128 time=33.6 ms
    13 64 bytes from 192.168.1.102: icmp_seq=11 ttl=128 time=52.2 ms
    14 ^C
    15 --- 192.168.1.102 ping statistics ---
    16 11 packets transmitted, 11 received, 0% packet loss, time 10024ms
    17 rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 14.050/59.924/110.534/28.619 ms

    通过fdisk -l 查询磁盘挂载情况,如下所示:

     1 [root@bogon /]# fdisk -l
     2 
     3 Disk /dev/sda: 21.5 GB, 21474836480 bytes, 41943040 sectors
     4 Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
     5 Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
     6 I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
     7 Disk label type: dos
     8 Disk identifier: 0x000bfc23
     9 
    10    Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
    11 /dev/sda1   *        2048      411647      204800   83  Linux
    12 /dev/sda2          411648    25593855    12591104   8e  Linux LVM
    13 
    14 Disk /dev/mapper/centos-root: 10.7 GB, 10737418240 bytes, 20971520 sectors
    15 Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
    16 Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
    17 I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
    18 
    19 
    20 Disk /dev/mapper/centos-swap: 2147 MB, 2147483648 bytes, 4194304 sectors
    21 Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
    22 Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
    23 I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes

    归档命令

    归档命令tar,也可以进行解压缩,如下所示:

    通过tar -czvf 进行压缩成gz格式

    1 [root@bogon hexx]# tar -czvf xxx.gz file2.txt file5.txt file6.txt
    2 file2.txt
    3 file5.txt
    4 file6.txt
    5 [root@bogon hexx]# ls
    6 file2.txt  file5.txt  file6.txt  xxx.gz

    解压命令,通过tar -zxvf解压gz格式的文件,如下所示:

     1 [root@bogon hexx]# rm -r file*
     2 rm: remove regular empty file ‘file2.txt’? Y
     3 rm: remove regular empty file ‘file5.txt’? Y
     4 rm: remove regular empty file ‘file6.txt’? Y
     5 [root@bogon hexx]# ls
     6 xxx.gz
     7 [root@bogon hexx]# tar -zxvf xxx.gz
     8 file2.txt
     9 file5.txt
    10 file6.txt
    11 [root@bogon hexx]# ls
    12 file2.txt  file5.txt  file6.txt  xxx.gz

    将文件解压到指定目录,如下所示:

     1 [root@bogon hexx]# mkdir xxxx
     2 [root@bogon hexx]# ls
     3 file2.txt  file5.txt  file6.txt  xxx.gz  xxxx
     4 [root@bogon hexx]# tar -zxvf xxx.gz -C xxxx
     5 file2.txt
     6 file5.txt
     7 file6.txt
     8 [root@bogon hexx]# ls
     9 file2.txt  file5.txt  file6.txt  xxx.gz  xxxx
    10 [root@bogon hexx]# cd xxxx
    11 [root@bogon xxxx]# ls
    12 file2.txt  file5.txt  file6.txt

    tar命令详解,如下所示:

    tar -c 归档,-x 解档,-v显示操作的所有文件,-f 归档普通文件的名称 -z 调用gzip来进行解压和压缩,-j 调用bzip2的方式进行解压和压缩,-C 指定解压到的目录。

    备注

    从军行

    作者:杨炯

    烽火照西京,心中自不平。
    牙璋辞凤阙,铁骑绕龙城。
    雪暗凋旗画,风多杂鼓声。
    宁为百夫长,胜作一书生。

     

    本帖子中包含资源

    您需要 登录 才可以下载,没有帐号?立即注册